Sunday, November 3, 2019
WK 2 forum Law enforcement - Essay Example Police officers have an increased rate of suicide, alcoholism, and divorce than most other occupations. The extended costs to be paid from police stress are also astounding, with premature retirement, high absenteeism, lower rates of discipline, and disability. Stress also possesses hidden costs such as crisis management actions that the police require to redo their shift schedules and poor community relationships (Ellison, 2011). Most police personnel also tend to suppress stress, which has negative impacts on the police officers, their families, and ultimately their career. Suppression of stress eventually evolves into defensive mechanisms, for example, detachment of officers from their emotional lives (Ellison, 2011). This suppression benefits the police officer in the occurrence of crises, proving a systemic and validated way to release suppressed emotions especially after critical occurrences. However, the officers also suppress anger and frustration towards their supervisors, which causes questioning of their leadership skills. Police stress also leads to a high rate of divorce among police officers since they use work as a way to deal with their stress, thus staying away from home and accepting punishing shifts (Ellison, 2011). Suicide rates from stress related issues also have hard-hitting effects on families, as the officer may have been the sole breadwinner in the family. Spill over from demands at work, work family conflict, and emotional exhaustion leads to high marital discord rates, as well as divorce. Administrators in Police Departments have attempted to develop programs aimed at addressing the issue of stress among its personnel. This change has, however, been very slow because of the because of the bureaucracy inherent in most police departments Kearn (Kearney, 2009). First line supervisors carry a
Friday, November 1, 2019
Renewable Energy- - Research Paper Example Over the time, the researchers have analyzed that there is a prompt need for the adaptation of renewable energy. For instance, the usage of solar, biomass and geo-thermal energy is important throughout the world to generate sustainable energy and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions (Nnadi et al, 2011). Oil, coal, water and woods have been used since long to produce energy. However, as the technological advancement takes place, there are new methods of producing energy that are flourishing. The world may face a major energy crisis in the future if the natural resources and energy production is not organized. The energy production is a highly technical field which needs skilled people and machinery. Once the energy is produced, it has to be used efficiently so that it is not exploited or wasted. Thus, it is our duty to focus on the important pathways of producing, using and conserving energy so that the future crisis is resolved. Before the energy is produced or used in any country, a detailed study should take place by their scientists to ensure the processes are carried out in the proper ways. There are certain countries in the world that are in a bad condition due to energy shortfalls which impacts their future progress immensely. It is important to adopt measures that are efficient and reliable to make sure the energy resources of a country are not exploited but used up efficiently. The countries suffering a crisis can overcome it by using natural resources to fulfill the everyday energy demands. Nigeria is an example of the countries that are suffering an energy crisis (Nnadiet al, 2011); China is the country that has made active use of its renewable energy resources and India fights the energy crisis it faces and uses up their renewable energy to the fullest (Ravikrishna, 2011). Nigeria is one of those countries that are rich in natural resources. Their natural resources are water,
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Advantages and the Use of Online Business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words
Advantages and the Use of Online Business - Essay Example This paper tells that the internet is a fast and easy sharing tool of information, which makes it the most important tool of the new era. The Internet has been the catalyst for the change and development of the business world in the generation. It has become indispensable for the companies to gain the maximum benefit with lower fixed costs and investments, through their resources. This is done by using the most efficient manner to compete with rivals in terms of crises. Aydin & Kavaklioglu uses content analysis method in their study on the website www.kitapix.com to make sales directly to the final consumer over the internet. This website was formed in 2009 under a low budget but established a customer group in a spell. Low investment costs and low fixed costs benefits, made e-commerce much more attractive for other companies. Besides the low costs, Baird notes that e-commerce may reach to a large geographical area with unlimited boundaries of service time and provide a great competi tive advantage to the businesses. For example, in the retail industry, merchandise assortments can increase inventory carrying costs and expenditures, which are caused by product returns. To control these costs, many retailers have maintained relatively few stock-keeping units (SKUs), which yield a pattern of awareness in sales commonly known as the 80/20 rule and described by the Pareto Principle. Another example is that some people have claimed that the surge of Internet retail activity can dilute this concentrated pattern of sales by lowering consumer search costs. As a result, they have argued that Internet commerce may contribute to an expansion in the share of sales by niche products, thereby creating a longer tail in the distribution of SKU sales. This phenomenon may ultimately make it more attractive to sell a greater variety of SKUs without incurring excessive carrying and product return costs.
Monday, October 28, 2019
Media Violence and Children Essay Your children are surrounded by violence. From video games and television to the news itself, bloodshed is everywhere. Many parents and educators fear that violence seen on the media will at the very least desensitize children, and that it may even make children more likely to commit atrocities themselves. Other people claim the violence seen on the media is not real, and that children understand this. So whos right? In order to better understand this crucial issue, we need to examine the history of violence in entertainment as well as revelations made possible by modern science. Violence in entertainment is not new. Even in ancient Rome, people gathered to watch gladiators. In gladiator combats, two trained men (usually criminals or slaves) would fight each other in front of a cheering crowd. Sometimes, men would also be forced to fight wild animals. These shows were incredibly popular; in order to accommodate the huge masses of people eager to watch the combat, Roman officials built the Colosseum, which could seat 50,000 spectators, in 80 CE. The opening of the Colosseum was celebrated with 100 days of games, during which thousands of men and animals were seriously injured or killed. Long before children watched violent cartoons, they listened to violent stories. Even our most cherished fairy tales often contain bloodshed. In fact, modern versions of fairy tales tend to be a lot less violent than the originals. For example, in Hans Christen Andersons The Little Mermaid, the little mermaid has her tongue cut out, almost stabs her prince, and dies; Disneys famous version of this classic tale is significantly happier and less violent. But why is violence such a popular form of entertainment? There are several possible answers, and they are probably all true to some extent. People like watching violence because it is, at least to some degree, forbidden; all functioning societies need to have laws against murder. Seeing other peoples pain also makes your own problems seem insignificant. Finally, some violence in the media was meant to teach a practical lesson. Many gladiators were condemned criminals, so their violent and entertaining death served as a warning against would-be criminals. Public executions have served the same purpose throughout history. Fairy tales also warned children against the dangers of misbehaving. For example, the little mermaid disobeyed the rules of her father and her people, and she suffered as a result. Modern violence in the media is not that different from what occurred in the past. People enjoy watching violence because it is forbidden, distracting, and it can teach lessons about reality. At the same time, violence is becoming more and more prevalent. Additionally, much of the violence shown in video games, movies, and television is completely unrealistic; real consequences are very rarely shown, especially in cartoons. As a result, the violence may be too glamorized to teach real life lessons. Even if violence does teach a morality lesson, children may still be negatively affected. Vincent P. Mathews, a professor of radiology at Indiana University School of Medicine, discovered that watching violence on the media might actually alter brain function. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) showed that watching violent images decreased frontal lobe brain activity in children whether or not they had previous problems of aggression. Decreased frontal lobe activity is associated with attention and self control problems. Also using fMRI, Klaus Mathiak at the University of Aachen in Germany discovered that playing violent video games and thinking about actually participating in real violent activities stimulate the same part of the brain. In other words, an individuals brain cannot distinguish between violent actions that are committed by the individual and violent activities that are purely make believe. Additionally, violent video games may be training the brain for real life violent behavior. So what does all of this mean for parents? Children, like adults, are naturally drawn to violent images, and it is possible for children to learn valuable lessons from violent stories. However, exposure to too much violence, especially glamorized violence, probably does have a negative impact of children. Although more scientific research needs to be conducted before conclusive answers can be given, children may have a hard time distinguishing between real violence and fake violence, and simply watching violence may lead to increased behavioral problems. If you are worried that your children are watching too much violence, you should monitor exactly what they are watching. Movies and video games both have rating systems, and all televisions 13 inches or larger that were manufactured in the United States since January 2000 contain V chips. V chips allow parents to control what programs are watched, even when the children are unsupervised. You could also limit the amount of time that your children are allowed to spend watching television or playing video games, regardless of whether or not the programs or games contain violent content. Finally, you can discuss the reality of violence with you children to make sure that they can differentiate between make believe and reality.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
During the fifthteenth century the Western religion of Christianity began to spread across the world through the influence of European powers such as Portugal and Spain. In 1549 the tiny island nation of Japan was first exposed to Christianity in the form of Jesuit missionaries, which included the affluent Saint Francis Xavier of Spain. Japan, up to this time, had always been an isolated country and this was applied towards its traditional cultural values as well, shunning outsider influences without a second thought. Through Xavier's efforts however, Christianity was able to create a solid foundation in spite of its foreign nature. From its point of arrival in 1549 Christianity enjoyed a peaceful and gradual growth, until 1597, when Japan's then de facto military leader, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, ordered the crucifixion of some twenty-six Christians in an outburst of anger (Spae 5). From here on the Japanese government began a series of persecution against Christianity and its followers w ithin Japan, ultimately cultivating into a bloody rebellion, and near massacre, in the Shimabara providence in 1639, and the eventual banning of all things Christian alongside a re-isolation of the country. This raises the question: Why was the religion of Christianity met with such resentment by the Japanese government? To answer the question, one must understand the circumstance and history of foreign tolerance in Japan, while also being aware of the political situation within the country at the time. From learning and analyzing these factors of society and politics, it can be realized that Christianity was utilized as a political scapegoat by the Shogunate [Military] government for superordinate means. Furthermore by analyzing this claim, an explana... ...d citizens. The attack of Christianity was chosen due to its foreign nature, as well the fact that it was minor nuisance, posed no actual political threat, and could easily be manipulated into a terrible monster. Once the Bakafu created this image of the evil Christians, and dispelled of it, the Japanese citizens were tricked into a fervent trust and admiration of their rulers. The events which transpired during this period of time help to explain why later Japan would become such a ultra-nationalistic country. The military administration of Japan was able to draw such focus and morale from its citizens due to an excellent manipulation towards view of foreign ideas. And from this initial embedding of anti-foreignness and blind belief in the government, would come the birth of the infamous modern-era patriotic and ultra-militaristic Japan of the twentieth century.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. 1 B ACKGROUND OF THE STUDY StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Union is asked to work beyond its capacity. It would be useful to have a voting (democratic) system to ensure that the Student CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s rulings are not lost in an overload of demands and those students Ã¢â¬â¢ union workload priorities match student priorities. One of the most crucial factors for a voting system to be successful is to exhibit a Voting Protocol that can prevent opportunities for fraud or for sacrificing the voter's privacy.The Voting Protocol that will be designed and implemented for this voting system will combine the advantages of existing protocols and techniques, while at the same time it will aim at eliminating most of the identified deficiencies and problems. The voting system includes three actors: Voter, the voting systemÃ¢â¬â¢s operator, and the administrator. Eligible voters have to register themselves, assisted by the Administrator, before the Ã¢â¬Å"election dayÃ¢â¬ .The sys tem ensures that only registered voters can vote and vote only once on the electionÃ¢â¬â¢s day, and collects the cast votes and tally the results of the election. Voter privacy is somehow maintained and vote tampering is prevented in this system. 1. 1. Historical background Since the San Miguel National High School started to elect their SSG officers, they have been using manual voting system, where they have to use more time just to prepare the materials for the election.The election will start by posting the list of name of the candidates, giving the exact number of sample ballots in every class rooms, and disposing one ballot box in each class rooms. The San Miguel National High School always elect officers every 3rd week of February for every year just to ensure that there will be someone to watch the students during the vacation. 1. 1. 1 Organizational Chart See Appendix A 1. 1. 3 Organizational Function President-the highest-ranking member of an organizationVice President-an official rank below a president, who can take the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s place if necessary. Secretary-somebody elected or appointed to keep records of the meetings of an organization such as a club, society, or committee, and to write or answer letters on its behalf. Treasurer-somebody who manages the finances of an organization, usually the chief financial officers. Auditor-somebody who checks accounts or conducts an audit of an organization.PIO -somebody who make sure that the public, the media and every organization involved in the crisis are constantly informed on the progress being made to resolve the emergency at hand. Project Manager-somebody who matches available resources (time, money and people) against business project aims Sergeant at Arms-somebody appointed to keep order within an organization such as a legislative body or court of law, and to perform various other duties such as making arrest. Representatives-somebody who speaks, acts, or votes on behalf of others. 1. 2 Objectives of the study 1. 2. 1 General objective of the study To create an automated voting system for San Miguel National High School, to promote student use of technology in the election process for the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s Student Council, thus making their digital inclusion possible and viable, and to show that technology can facilitate the student participation in school life and prepare them to become conscious and responsible citizens of the greater society. 1. 2. 2 Specific objective of the study * To lessen the time consume during the student council system. * To permit only eligible voters to vote and ensure that each eligible voter can vote only once. To reduce the manual procedure of task and to prevent human error for someone to prepare the election each year. * The system should allow and assist voters to cast their votes quickly, in one session, and with minimal equipment or special skills. 1. 3 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION This proposed system is designed to provide fast and a ccurate studentÃ¢â¬â¢s council election of San Miguel National High School. This voting system is capable in storing voterÃ¢â¬â¢s registration as well as calculates their votes for finalizing the winners of the election. All computations during the election are done in a reasonable amount of time.It will also provide a printed result of the election. 1. 4 Significance of the study` An election is a decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold formal office. Elections rely heavily on manual tallying and canvassing of votes thus making them vulnerable to control and manipulation. To ensure a credible and transparent electoral process, the modernization of the electoral system through computerization shall be supported to ensure the credibility of polls and correct the deficiencies in the electoral system.It is extremely fast, allowing obtaining final results in a matter of minutes. It has a very complete and user-friendly interface for system operato rs and as well as the voters. Furthermore, the challenge is to develop the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s appreciation of their vote as a means to reform the administration and receive better services from it. This type of voting system encourages the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s to promote suffrage. 1. 5 Summary of the study `The proposed system will lessen their effort and time in reading, storing, and calculating of the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ votes.It will be easier for COMELEC officer to conduct election in their school. It will provide accurate result of voting and fast type of automated election for the student council in San Miguel National High School. CHAPTER II CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 2. 1 Theories used in analyzing the system The current voting management in studentÃ¢â¬â¢s council election is manual, thus resulting in time consuming on part of the electoral officer. Everything need to be done on paper. All files are on the envelope and transferring of files needs an effort of the electoral officers. We a re now in age of the echnology. We should be able to use technology to a much greater extent it is in the current manual system. This encourage the proponents to conduct an interview, research and study to have an idea in making a system that can be used to easily store, calculate and finalized the result of automated election without the effort of election officer and the voters. The researchers finally come up with the Student Council Voting System which provides the LAN links to transfer and transmit the data of votes with high security and accuracy. 2. 2 Review of related studies Based on what Alecks P.Pabico said, Ã¢â¬Å"Six years ago, the idea of automated elections for student council posts in the University of the Philippines in Diliman was unimaginable, at least for me. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily because we couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t muster the technology and logistics, but there was simply neither a need nor a clamor for paperless voting. A lot of things have changed since then, an d automated elections are no longer a thing of the past in UP Diliman. Now on its second year, and notwithstanding minor glitches in the system, electronic voting has proven to be a worthy improvement in one of the basic democratic processes in modern society.Alecks got to UP a little past 2 p. m. last February 24, the day of the student council election this year. As a registered graduate student, he had made sure to drop by the campus to cast votes, first time to participate in the automated system on a university-wide scale. There was already a long queue outside the designated voting center at the College of Arts and Letters. Some students were waiting for their names to be located on the list, while others were waiting for their turn at the computer terminals. There were no paper ballots or ballot boxes in sight. Ã¢â¬ 2. 3 Findings on related studies and theories According to Alecks P.Pabico (a writer of the investigate Reporting Magazine), for the more important aspects of the electoral process from voter registration, voting, vote counting to canvassing Ã¢â¬â touches of modernity have been an elusive as replies with substance from candidates. Yet for the most part the problem stems not from a lack of available technological solutions. A comprehensive computerized voting system encompassed the three major phases of the elections; registration, voting and tabulation. Pilot tested in council elections in universities, it has proven to be an effective safe-guard against fraud and manipulation like dag-dag Ã¢â¬âbawas. . 4 Terms Adopted in the Study 2. 4. 1Technical terms Automated election system Ã¢â¬â a system using appropriate technology for voting and electronic devices to count votes and canvass/consolidate results. Computer literacy-defined as the knowledge and ability to use computers and technology efficiently. Data Ã¢â¬â a collection of facts, figures, and statistics related to an object. Database Ã¢â¬â a collection of related or si milar records that are mostly used together. Data security Ã¢â¬â the means of ensuring that data is kept safe fromcorruption and that access to it is suitably controlled.Existing system- a system that is currently being used by the institution. Networking- the act of working using computer network or the act of connecting computers into network. System design- the process or art of defining the architecture, components, modules, interfaces, and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements. User friendly-a system that is easy to learn and to use. 2. 4. 2 Operational terms Automation- the automatic operation or control of equipment, a process, or a system. Election Ã¢â¬â is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office.Input Ã¢â¬â the term denoting either an entrance or changes which are inserted into a system and which activate/modify a process. Output Ã¢â¬â the term denoting either an exit or changes which exit a system and which activate/modify a process. Registration- the act of registering or being registered. CHAPTER III ARCHITECTURIAL DESIGN 3. 1 The Existing System The existing system of San Miguel National High School when having a Student Supreme Government (SSG) election, all transactions like votersÃ¢â¬â¢ registration and voting, is done manually. The election is held during the 3rd week of February for every year.To be one of the candidates for the election the student must have a grade of at least 85% and above. The student who is running for president must be a 3rd year student. During the election, the SMNHSÃ¢â¬â¢ COMELEC will prepare a sample ballots and a ballot box for each class room. To vote, the students have to write the names of the candidates for every position that they want to elect. For the validation of votes, every student will have to put thumb marks on the sample ballots. After the election, the COMELEC, along with the SSG adviser, will count the votes one by one in front of the entire student. . 1. 1 Data Flow Diagram See appendix B 3. 2 Problem Identifications of the Existing System This section presents all the problems identified by the researchers after gathering all data by means of interviewing the SSG Adviser of San Miguel National High School. 3. 2. 1 Presentation of the Problems The following are the problems identified by the researcher based on the gathered data. 3. 2. 1 . 1The process of counting the votes one by one is kind of time consuming process. 3. 2. 1 . 2The votes cannot be secured or can be falsifies. 3. 2. 1. The writing of the student may not be clear. 3. 2. 1. 4The COMELEC officers disregard the student that did not vote. 3. 3 The Proposed System 3. 3. 1 Needs for the System The system needs maintenance to maintain the security, accuracy and the capacity of the system. 3. 3. 2 Data Flow Diagram of the Proposed System See Appendix C 3. 4 Objectives of the Proposed System To help the School especially the San Miguel National High School to their manually voting of their organization (SSG). 3. 4. 1 General Objective of the proposed System To create an automated voting system for the San Miguel National High School. 3. 4. 2 Specific Objective of the proposed System 3. 4. 3. 1 The system functionality should ensure that no one can falsify or modify the result of the voting by eliminating a valid vote or counting an invalid vote in the final tally. 3. 4. 3. 2 A system that provides a log-on security to secure the votes and to ensure that only authorized person can access the system. 3. 4. 3. 3 The system that permits only eligible voters to vote and ensure that each eligible voter can vote only once. 3. 4. 3. To ensure that no one can duplicate his or someone else's vote and no one can change someone else's vote. 3. 4 Users of the System The SMNHS Student Council Voting System is intended for the use of San Miguel National High SchoolÃ¢â¬â¢s student, SSG president and COMELEC officers. It will help the COMELEC Officers to register students, prepare the election, and calculating the votes. It will lessen the time they consumed conducting a student council election. It will lessen the effort of the SSG president and COMELEC officers preparing and distributing the sample ballots and ballot boxes to each room. 3. Environment of the Usage System The following are activities that can be done by the use of the new system: 3. 6. 1 The system accept data inputs to create student records such as their student number, name, address, age, gender, year and section. 3. 6. 2Lessen the time consumed during the counting of votes. 3. 6. 3 Student who has already voted cannot vote again. 3. 6. 4Automatically prints the result of election. 3. 6. 5 Administrator is the only person to access the system. 3. 7 Components of the Proposed System 3. 7. 1 General features of the Proposed System The general features of the proposed system are the following: 3. . 1. 1 Menu Driven Ã¢â¬âpertaini ng to software that makes extensive use of menus to enable users to choose alternatives and guide program operations. 3. 7. 1. 2Help FacilitiesÃ¢â¬âin which offer the users to support in the learningprocess. 3. 7. 1. 3 User Friendly-it provides user friendly features that will help the user to interact easily in manipulating the system. 3. 7. 1. 4 Reliability Ã¢â¬âthe system performs specific task correctly to support the transaction entered. 3. 7. 1. 5 Security Ã¢â¬âit will include password to ensure that unauthorized user cannot read or use the data to make sure that the ystem files are safe in unnecessary information and for the privacy of counting of voting. 3. 5. 3 Functions of the System 3. 5. 4. 5 Visual Table of Content Ã¢â¬â Program Level See Appendix D 3. 5. 4. 6 Visual Table of Content Ã¢â¬â Module Level See Appendix E 3. 5. 4. 7 Visual Table of Content Ã¢â¬â System Level System Level PASSWORD 0 Main Module Menu 1. 0 Voting Menu 2. 1 Select 2. 2 Submit 2 . 3 Exit 2. 0 Official Ballot 3. 4 Submit 3. 5 Back PASSWORD 0 Main Module Menu 1. 0 Admin Menu 2. 1 Add Voter 2. 2. 1 Generate StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s ID 2. 2. 2 Generate Password 2. 2. 3 Add Voter 2. 2. 4 View 2. . 5 Save 2. 2 VotersÃ¢â¬â¢ list 2. 3. 6 Select 2. 3 Candidate list 2. 4. 7 Delete 2. 4 Search 2. 5. 8 Search by ID 2. 5. 9 Search by Name 2. 5 About 2. 6 View 2. 7. 10 Candidate list 2. 7 Application Form 1. 7. 1 Candidate Registration 2. 8 Report 2. 9. 11 Canvassing Report 2. 9. 12 VotersÃ¢â¬â¢ Report 2. 9. 13 Section/Year Report 2. 9 Tool 2. 10. 14 Password 1. 10 Exit 3. 7. 3 Systems Inputs The following are the input of the system: 3. 7. 3. 1Password that contains a set of characters uses to log-in the Administrator for the system to operate (to register students and begin the voting). . 7. 3. 2 The studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ number, name, address, age, year, and section. 3. 7. 3. 3The studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ vote for every position. 3. 7. 4 System Outputs The following will be the output of the system: 3. 7. 4. 1 The system will produce the printed result of the election. 3. 7. 4. 2The list of the registered student who did not vote. 3. 7. 4. 3 The list of candidates in their selected position. 3. 7. 4. 4 The current status of the election 3. 7. 5 Input Ã¢â¬â Process Ã¢â¬â Output Ã¢â¬â Charts 3. 7. 5. 1 System IPO See Appendix F 3. 7. 6 Data DictionaryA Data Dictionary of San Miguel National High School (SMNHS) Student Council Voting System Table Name| Attribute Name| Contents| Type| Format| Range| PK| Users| UserID| UserID| Autonumber| xxxxxx| N/A| PK| | Username| Username| Text| xxxxxx| | | | Password| Password| Text| xxxxxx| | | Table Name| Attribute Name| Contents| Type| Format| Range| PK| Position| PositionID| PositionID| Autonumber| xxxxxx| N/A| PK| | Position| Position| Text| xxxxxx| | | Table Name| Attribute Name| Contents| Type| Format| Range| PK| Voters| VoterID| VoterID| Autonumber| xxxxxx| N/A| PK| | Username| Username| Text| xxxxxx| | | Passwo rd| Password| Text| xxxxxx| | | | Name| Name| Text| xxxxxx| | | | Year| Year| Text| xxxxxx| | | | Section| Section| Text| xxxxxx| | | | Voted| Voted| Text| xxxxxx| | | Table Name| Attribute Name| Contents| Type| Format| Range| PK| Candidates| CandidateID| CandidateID| Number| xxxxxx| N/A| K| | PositionID| PositionID| Number| xxxxxx| | | | Name| Last;First Name| Text| xxxxxx| | | | Year| Year| Number| xxxxxx| | | | Section| Section| Text| xxxxxx| | | | Photo| Photo/Image| OLE Object| . jpg/. png| | | | Votes| Votes| Number| xxxxxx| | | A Data Dictionary of San Miguel National High School Student Council Voting System Entity ___________________________________________________________________ Label:Voters Entry Type: Description: Alias: Values and Meanings: Input Data flow: Vote Output Data flow: Notes: Long Name: Registered Student ____________________________________________________________________ Label:User Entry Type: Description: Alias: Values and Meanings: Input Data flow: Outpu t Data flow: Notes: Long Name: Admin ____________________________________________________________________ A Data Dictionary of San Miguel National High School Student Council Voting System Elements ___________________________________________________________________ Default System:San Miguel National High SchoolStudent Council Voting System Label: StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s ID Type and Length: Source: Voter Registration Form/Candidate Registration Form Security:Admin Description and Comment: Date: Alias: Default Value: Acceptable Value: User Responsibility: Admin ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Default System:San Miguel National High SchoolStudent Council Voting System Label: StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Password Type and Length:Source: Voter Registration Form/Candidate Registration Form Security:Admin Description and Comment: Date: Alias: Default Value: Acceptable Value: User Responsibility: Admin __ __________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Default System:San Miguel National High SchoolStudent Council Voting System Label: First Name Type and Length: Source: Voter Registration Form/Candidate Registration Form Security:Admin Description and Comment: Date: Alias: Default Value: Acceptable Value: User Responsibility: Admin __________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Default System:San Miguel National High SchoolStudent Council Voting System Label: Last Name Type and Length: Source: Voter Registration Form/Candidate Registration Form Security:Admin Description and Comment: Date: Alias: Default Value: Acceptable Value: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- User Responsibility: Admin _____________________________ ___________________________________________ Default System: San Miguel National High School Student Council Voting System Label: Year levelType and Length: Source: Voter Registration Form/Candidate Registration Form Security: Admin Date: Alias: Default Value: Acceptable Value: User Responsibility: Admin ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Default System:San Miguel National High SchoolStudent Council Voting System Label: Section Type and Length: Source: Voter Registration Form/Candidate Registration Form Security:Admin Description and Comment: Date: Alias: Default Value: Acceptable Value: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-User Responsibility: Admin 3. 5 Development Flowchart and Schedule 3. 8. 1 Gantt chart See Appendix G 3. 6. 4 System Flowchart See Appendix H 3. 6. 5 Program Flowc hart See Appendix I CHAPTER IV DETAILED DESIGN 4. 1Standards and Conventions This chapter will explain the standard and convention used in design of the proposed system to ensure the uniformity throughout the system and to emphasize the system very well. 4. 1. 1 Design Methodology The proposal used the top-down programming approach as the design technique in the process of developing the simulation of the system.This approach refers to a problem solving technique which involves in voting, analysis to the total of vote, design of the program or solution in terms of large objectives, designing the modules and subroutines needed in the program and finally writing the detailed code. 4. 1. 2 Program Naming and Convention A special name was given to all programs of every module in a way that it describes each subprogram in order to represent the function to be performed. Names are related to each subprogram giving emphases on what each module is performing. This can be seen in the module specification section on this chapter. 4. 1. File Naming and Convention Each record of the student used in the program was classified with their student number so that the user can easily understand and can vote wisely for the running candidates. Each student who already voted is automatically save in the database of the system for validation of the processes performed by each subprogram. 4. 2 Module Specification This section discusses all information about modules of the proposed system. Name:System Password Purpose:To protect and secure the election to illegible voters Entry:Password Exit: Inputs:Valid Password Outputs:Main Menu Errors: Calls:Voting MenuCalled by: Remarks: Name:Voting Menu Purpose:To provide ballot form for the students Entry:Choice Exit:Choice Exit Inputs:Choice Outputs:Official Ballot Errors: Calls:1. 1 Select, 1. 2 Submit, 1. 3 Exit Called by: 0 MAIN Menu Remarks: Name:Official Ballot Purpose:To show the list of elected candidates Entry:Choice Exit:Choice Exit Inputs:Choice Outputs:Your Choice Errors: Calls:2. 1 Submit, 2. 2 Back Called by: Voting Menu Remarks: Name:System Password Purpose:To provide and secure votes to unauthorized person Entry:Choice Exit:Choice Exit Inputs:Choice Outputs:Admin Menu Errors: Calls:2. 1 Submit, 2. 2 BackCalled by: 0 MAIN Menu Remarks: Name:Admin Menu Purpose:To display Admin Menu Entry:Choice Exit:Choice Exit Inputs:Choice Outputs:Your Choice Errors: Calls:1. 1 Add Voter, 1. 2 VotersÃ¢â¬â¢ List, 1. 3 Candidate List, 1. 4 Search, 1. 5 About, 1. 6 View, 1. 7 Application form, 1. 8 Report, 1. 9 Tool,1. 10 Exit Called by: Voting Menu Remarks: Name:Add Voter Purpose:To Register new voter Entry:Choice Exit:Choice Exit Inputs:Choice Outputs:Your Choice Errors: Calls:1. 1. 1Generate Student id, 1. 1. 2 Generate Student Password, 1. 1. 3 Add voter, 1. 1. 4 View, 1. 1. 5 Save Called by: Admin Menu Remarks: Name:VotersÃ¢â¬â¢ ListPurpose:To View the list of voters and update votersÃ¢â¬â¢ status Entry:Choice Ex it:Choice Exit Inputs:Choice Outputs:VoterÃ¢â¬â¢s Registration Form Errors: Calls:2. 1 Select Called by: Admin Menu Remarks: Name:Candidate List Purpose:To View the list of candidates and delete former candidates Entry:Choice Exit:Choice Exit Inputs:Choice Outputs:Your Choice Errors: Calls:1. 3. 1 Delete Called by: Admin Menu Remarks: Name:Search Purpose:Search the voters record Entry:Choice Exit:Choice Exit Inputs:Choice Outputs:Your Choice Errors: Calls:1. 4. 1Search by ID, 1. 4. 2Search by Name Called by: Admin Menu Remarks: Name:AboutPurpose:About the system and the Developers Entry:Choice Exit:Choice Exit Inputs: Outputs:Display information Errors: Calls: Called by: Admin Menu Remarks: Name:View Purpose:You can view the candidates list and voters list Entry:Choice Exit:Choice Exit Inputs:Choice Outputs:Display information Errors: Calls:1. 6. 1 Candidate list Called by: Admin Menu Remarks: Name:Candidate list Purpose:You can view the candidates list Entry:Choice Exit:Choice Ex it Inputs:Choice Outputs:Display information Errors: Calls:1. 6. 1. 1 President List, 1. 6. 1. 2 V-President List, 1. 6. 1. 3 Secretary List, 1. 6. 1. 4 Treasurer List1. . 1. 5 Auditor List, 1. 6. 1. 6 PIO List1. 6. 1. 7 Project Manager List, 1. 6. 1. 8 Sergeant at Arms List1. 6. 1. 9 4th Yr. Representative List,1. 6. 1. 10 3rd Yr. Representative 1. 6. 1. 11 2nd Yr. Representative List, 1. 6. 1. 12 Gr. 7 Representative List Called by: Admin Menu Remarks: Name:Application Form Purpose:The Application Form of the candidates and voters Entry:Choice Exit:Choice Exit Inputs:Choice Outputs:Display information Errors: Calls: Called by: Admin Menu Remarks: Name:Candidate Registration Purpose:Display the registration form of the said position Entry:Choice Exit:Choice Exit Inputs:ChoiceOutputs:Display information Errors: Calls: Called by: Admin Menu Remarks: Name:Report Purpose:The canvassing report and the candidate displayed Entry:Choice Exit:Choice Exit Inputs:Choice Outputs:Display inform ation Errors: Calls:1. 8. 1 Canvassing Report, 1. 8. 2 VotersÃ¢â¬â¢ Report 1. 8. 3 Section/Year Report 1. 8. 4 Result Called by: Admin Menu Remarks: Name:Canvassing Report Purpose:To know the outstanding report of the candidates Entry:Choice Exit:Choice Exit Inputs:Choice Outputs:Display information Errors: Calls:1. 8. 1. 1President Candidates,1. 8. 1. 2 V-President Candidates,1. 8. 1. 3 Secretary Candidates,1. 8. 1. Treasurer Candidates 1. 8. 1. 5 Auditor Candidates, 1. 8. 1. 6 PIO Candidates 1. 8. 1. 7 Project Manager Candidates, 1. 8. 1. 7 Sergeant at Arms Candidates, 1. 8. 1. 8 4th Yr. Representative Candidates 1. 8. 1. 9 3rd Yr. Representative Candidates, 1. 8. 1. 10 2ndYr. Representative Candidate, 1. 8. 1. 11 Gr. 7 Representative Candidates Called by: Admin Menu Remarks: Name:VotersÃ¢â¬â¢ Report Purpose:The numbers of voters who vote and who did not, and the total of votes Entry:Choice Exit:Choice Exit Inputs:Choice Outputs:Display information Errors: Calls:1. 8. 2. 1Sear ch, 1. 8. 2. 2 Refresh, 1. 8. 2. 3 Print Called by: Admin MenuRemarks: Name:Section/Year Report Purpose:The numbers of registered voters Entry:Choice Exit:Choice Exit Inputs:Choice Outputs:Display information Errors: Calls:1. 8. 3. 1Search, 1. 8. 3. 2 Refresh, 1. 8. 3. 3 Print Called by: Admin Menu Remarks: Name:Result Purpose:To display the result of the election Entry:Choice Exit:Choice Exit Inputs:Choice Outputs:Display information Errors: Calls:1. 8. 4. 1 Refresh, 1. 8. 4. 2 Print Called by: Admin Menu Remarks: Name:Tool Purpose:Display the student password Entry:Choice Exit:Choice Exit Inputs:Choice Outputs:Display information Errors: Calls:1. 1. 9. 1 Password Called by: Admin MenuRemarks Name:Exit Purpose:Close the system if you want Entry:Choice Exit:Choice Exit Inputs:Choice Outputs:Display information Errors: Calls: Called by: Admin Menu Remarks: 4. 2 Module Specification MODULE: MAIN Menu This section calls the other modules or program. Mouse and menu driven may used to ac cess each subprogram. MODULE: PASSWORD The module requires usersÃ¢â¬â¢ ID and a correct password. If the password is correct, the Voting Menu and Admin Menu that we used by only one module at a time will be automatically display. MODULE: VOTING MENU The module provides ballot form for the registered student to vote. MODULE: ADMIN MENUThe module provides menu for the admin to access, manage, maintain and secure files. DATA ENTRY For the Voting Menu the different option includes Select, Submit, and Exit. For the Admin Menu includes Generate, Add Voter, Save, View, Select, Delete, Find, and Print. OFFICIAL BALLOTS Show the candidates to be elected. APPLICATION FORM The module provides registration form for Voters and candidates. ABOUT Show information about the system. EXIT Close the Menus 4. 4 File Specification System: San Miguel National High School Student Council Voting System Record Size: File Name: Student Council Voting System Storage Media: DiskTable name: Candidate Organiza tion: Index Field Name| Data Type| External Length| Candidate ID| AutoNumber| | PositionID| Text| | Name| Text| | Year| Number| | Section| Text| | Photo| OLE Object| | Votes| Number| | System: San Miguel National High School Student Council Voting System Record Size: File Name: Student Council Voting System Storage Media: Disk Table name: Position Organization: Index Field Name| Data Type| External Length| PositionID| Text| | Position| Text| | System: San Miguel National High School Student Council Voting System Record Size: File Name: Student Council Voting System Storage Media: DiskTable name: Users Organization: Index Field Name| Data Type| External Length| UserID| AutoNumber| | Username| Text| | Password| Text| | System: San Miguel National High School Student Council Voting System Record Size: File Name: Student Council Voting System Storage Media: Disk Table name: Voters Organization: Index Field Name| Data Type| External Length| VoterID| AutoNumber| | Username| Text| | Passwo rd| Text| | Name| Text| | Year| Text| | Section| Text| | Voted| Text| | 4. 5 Screen Format See Appendix J. 4. 6 Report Format See Appendix K. 4. 7 Hardware Specification ITEMS| SPECIFICATIONS/BRAND| PRICE|Computer Terminal| Compaq(Compaq435)- AMD-Windows 8 Pro-2 GB DDR Memory-500GB Hard Disk Drives-Less than 25 mm thin and 2. 5 kg light-ODD/HDD-A large volume hard disk and 8X DVD-Super Multi drive in a small form factor for massive storage and media usage-LAN/VGA Port-Multimedia Card- Optical disk access indicator-Kensington lock slot-802. 11 b/g/n Wi-Fi| P 20,000. 00| Power Supply| | 29. 00| | | Total P20,029. 00| 4. 8 Cost Benefit Analysis 4. 8. 1 Presentation of Cost 4. 8. 1. 1 Existing System Expense A. Supplies Expense Description| Unit Cost| Qty/Day| Qty/Year| Cost/Year| Ball pen| 10/pc| 50pcs. | 50pcs| 500. 00|Bond Paper| 170/rim| 4 rim| 4 rim| 680. 00| Pentel Pen| 48/pc| 40pcs. | 40pcs| 1,920. 00| Manila Paper| 5/pc| 15pcs. | 15pcs| 75. 00| Staple Wire| 10/box| 10box| 10pcs| 100. 00| Stapler| 150/pc| 10pcs| 10pcs| 1,500. 00| Folder| 12/pc| 35pcs| 35pcs| 420. 00| Ballot Box (Carton)| 5/pc| 35pcs| 35pcs| 175. 00| Packing Tape| 45/pc| 10pcs| 10pcs| 450. 00| Printer| 3,400/pc| 1pc| 1pc| 3,400. 00| Pencil| 6/pc| 50pcs| 50| 300. 00| Ink| 300/set| 1set| 1set| 300. 00| Certification| 3/pc| 24pcs| 24pcs| 72. 00| Snacks (Teachers ;Comelec)| 100| 30pcs| 30pcs| 3,000. 00| | | Total Supplies| Expense/yr| P 12,892. 00| B. Electric ConsumptionHours/Day| Cost/Hour| Daily Rate| Cost/Year| 8| 36. 00| 288. 00| 288. 00| | Total Electric| Expense per Day| P288. 00| Total Existing System Expense P 13,180. 00 C. Equipment Expense Quantity| Item| Price| 1| Power Supply| P 300. 00| 6| Printer Ink| 600. 00| Total Equipment Expense P 900. 00 D. Maintenance Expense Maintenance Fund Expense/Day| 0| Total Maintenance ExpenseP 0. 00| E. Computer Utilization Expense Software Package Cost Visual Basic 6. 0 Microsoft Access 2007| Total Software Costs P 5,000. 00 F. Training/Seminar Exp ense 1 day Training/Seminar Expense| P 300. 00| | | Total System Expense P 6,700. 0 4. 8. 2 Presentation of Benefits YOP| Cost| Future Value| Present Value| Acc. Present Value| 0| -6,700. 00| | | | 1| | P 3,000. 00| P 2,800. 00| P 2,800. 00| 2| | 4,000. 00| 3,780. 00| 6,580. 00| 3| | 5,000. 00| 4,894. 00| 11,474. 00| 4| | 6,000. 00| 5,132. 00| 16,606. 00| 5| | 7,000. 00| 6,356. 00| 22,962. 00| Rate of Return (ROR) (E/C) Ã¢â¬â 1/nLet E = Earning C = Cost n = Number of days (P 22,962 / P 6,700) Ã¢â¬â 1/5 = (3. 4272) Ã¢â¬â 0. 2 = 3. 2272 or 0. 3227% Payback Period ( APV Ã¢â¬â C/ APV) + Previous YearLet Cost = 6,700. 00 AVP = 16,606. 00 Previous Year = 3 (16,606. 00 Ã¢â¬â 6,700. 00 / 16,606. 00) + 3 = (0. 59653) + 3 = 3. 9 (3 years and 6 months) CHAPTER V IMPLEMENTATION 5. 1 Implementation Phase In this section, the proposal will discuss the activities that they have to vote in order to the flow of the system. It is included also the maintenance of the system in order to avoid the redundancy of the voting and to keep the good performance of the system for the student of using automated election. The implementation of this proposed system though conditions will also be presented to insure it accuracy, capability in reaching the intended target, effective for producing a desire voters in the election, integrity and to further check the errors. . 2 Program Specification The Visual Basic 6. 0 was used by the system to develop the software programs. Visual Basic 6. 0 offers a file handling performance needed by the system and it is integrated with Microsoft Access 2013 on which the proposed design the database management system. 5. 3 Program Testing After all the modules of the program have been finished, the proposed system test is to see if the output is performed very well for the satisfaction of the user and to avoid the errors that will occur during the election day.Although the proposed system is simulation, the test showed that San Miguel National High School voting system performed the high standard, accuracy, and the reliability of the system. 5. 4 Security and Back Up plans The proposed system has own password for the intended user to protect the system from unauthorized access information. This system also provides an option to create back Ã¢â¬âup copies of information on the system and place it in secured place outside of the company. Authorized personnel are responsible to keep the back Ã¢â¬âup files so the in the case of system loss, regeneration is possible. . 5 Maintenance Plan The back Ã¢â¬âup files should be made in order to maintain the system from possible loss of important data and damages programs. These files are most significant when unexpected hardware failure results in damages program file and loss of data, so the user should at least make two (2) copies of all files every data processing for a better maintenance of the system. 5. 6 User Training In order to have an effective operation of the sys tem, the proposed system suggest that the user should be trained on how to interest with the system to ensure the integrity of the system.The training of the student to use the system is help by the intended administrator who knows the system. This Automated SSG election system is user friendly to ensure the success implementation. CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 6. 1 Conclusion As other School and establishments, San Miguel National High School together with their existing system, faced various problems. San Miguel National High School still utilizes the some manual procedure in preparing for their student council election.We, the researchers formulated the objective of the study: To find out the flow and functionality of the present semi-automated system and likewise. Propose and present an automated Student Voting Council system to the sufficient and more lessen of preparing for the coming student election. To cope up with the problems, the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s initial st ep was to study and conduct some interview to school (e. g. SSG Adviser, Officers, and Students). We analyzed the present system so as to locate the various limitations therein.Observations were also done in order to find out the conditions and steps for the voting system. Elections rely heavily on manual tallying and canvassing of votes thus making them vulnerable to control and manipulate. To ensure a credible and transparent electoral process, the modernization of the electoral system through computerization shall be supported to ensure the credibility of polls and correct the deficiencies in the electoral system. To eliminate many ineffective features of the present system, the researcher come up with proposed system modeled basically to counter act the above limitations.Some steps that made the process quit long eliminated as the automated program was sufficient enough. Computations were accomplished by the computer itself while files were kept in order and gathered with reliab le security. The study revealed that utilizing computers will in the long run be financially beneficial to the School. Based on the findings and data gathered, the researchers have come up with the following conclusions: 1. The existing system of San Miguel National High School when having a Student Supreme Government (SSG) election, all transactions like votersÃ¢â¬â¢ registration and voting, is done manually. . The existing system generates many problems such as redundant voters, time consuming, heavy workload (esp. SSG Adviser). And difficulty in updating and editing the files of the voters. 3. That there is need for an enhancement of their system due to the problem of their existing system, a new system is entirely required to the substitute the present process that is quit inferior. Voting can be made available in the same day of election. The COMELEC will not be busy the week before the election to prepare all the ballot of every student.The day of the Election they can easil y print the winner of the election signed by SSG adviser. 4. That the new system would meet the limitations of the existing manual system. The proposed automated SSG voting council system is effective because the computation and manipulation of files are done by the computer, thus eliminating redundancy, voters records will be refrained these may be possibly eliminated. 5. The researchers also recommend this study to the students as a guide in doing the same study in other public or private purposes. 6. 2 RecommendationsThe researchers recommend that the proposed system be implemented as to put an end may enormous work shouldered, by the voters in the COMELEC of San Miguel National High School. In implementing this system, the COMELEC can work harmoniously have more quality time spent for other tasks, and system will be freed from deficiencies. The researchers believed that the proposed system offers quality services without spending much time and effort. It is also recommended that the school comply with the requirements of the proposed system so that difficulties may be possibly eliminated.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
The Civil Rights Movement that began in 1950 was an attempt to address the state of inequality that had existed in Black and White America since the nation's conception. The Movement began as a demand to get Ã¢â¬Ëpayment' on a promise too long delayed, as noted by the movement's leader Martin Luther King Jr. , for Black equality, in his Ã¢â¬Å"Letter from a Birmingham Jail. Ã¢â¬ The early Civil Rights movement focused on integration as achieved through legal means such as in the Ã¢â¬ËBrown v. Board of Education' case. This case was successfully appealed to the Warren Court on behalf of Lisa Brown, a young Black student, and argued by Thurgood Marshall, who was later to sit on the bench as a Supreme Court Justice himself, after demanded integration in public education. (Cozzens, Ã¢â¬Å"Brown versus Board of Education,Ã¢â¬ 1998) The movement also was articulated through early acts of civil disobedience such as the attempt to protest the lynching of Emmett Till, a thirteen-year-old Northern boy lynched for murdering a White woman. Cozzens, Ã¢â¬Å"Emmett Till,Ã¢â¬ 1998) In assessing whether the goals of the movement were met, it must be noted that it would have been unthinkable in the 1950's that a Black woman would be a Secretary of State, as is the case today, or could have won the Noble Prize like Toni Morrison. Martin Luther King Jr. is not only a respected figure, but gives his presence to a national holiday. Yet despite the gains of the previous decades, there still remains an economic and educational gap between Black America and White America that integration through legal or political demonstrations has not been able to heal. Lynching as a common practice has been brought to rest, perhaps, but tensions exist all over the nation between Black Americans and what is often an all-White police force. America appears more integrated today, and laws allow for some methods of historical redress like affirmative action. But the sense that this still remains inadequate, despite the successes of prominent African Americans on an individual level, has caused many Blacks today to study the more radical, or culturally focused members of the early movement, such as Malcolm X, and to question whether some form of cultural rehabilitation of Black culture is necessary to undo the still-lasting legacy discrimination has wrought. And finally, the example of the failed relief effort of Hurricane Katrina to the largely all Black residents whose neighborhoods were destroyed showed the nation how deep the poverty remains in the nation in many impoverished areas that are segregated in fact, if not in law.